The modern Chinese language curriculum is arranged in a five-year sequence of courses offering a balanced emphasis on listening, speaking, reading, and writing. A primary goal is that students be able to communicate fluently and accurately in appropriate social context as well as to read high quality authentic materials with the necessary aid of a dictionary and write short papers on designated topics, by the end of the fourth year. At the same time, for those who are interested in premodern Chinese texts or aim to have the ability to use Chinese written resources in premodern China for senior thesis research, Introduction to Traditional Literary Chinese (410 & 411) is highly recommended. And those who are especially interested in learning Chinese language in a business setting, are encouraged to take Legal and Business Chinese (463) after the third year. In addition, Independent Studies (498 or 500) is also available to serve the needs of advanced students who want to further improve their language proficiency beyond the fourth year level with the permission of the Section Head.